CORRECT TERMINOLOGY USAGE FOR HIP HOP:
BBOY/BGIRL OR BREAKER OR ROCKER IS TO BBOYING/BGIRLING, BREAKIN, ROCKING,GOING OFF - NOT BREAKDANCE THAT IS A MEDIA COINED TERM NEVER USED OR ACCEPTED WITHIN THE ART BY ITS GRANDMASTERS.
WRITER - AEROSOL ARTIST IS TO WRITING OR BOMBING,TAGGING,FREE HAND,WILDSTYLES,BURNERS,PIECES,,THROWUPS, STREET ART,etc- although accepted GRAFFITI OR GRAFF is not a genuine term - THAT IS A MEDIA COINED TERM THAT THE PIONEERS DID NOT USE...THOUGH HEAVILY USED TODAY BY MOST IT IS IMPORTANT TO PRESERVE THE ORIGINAL WAY.
EMCEE OR MC OR POET IS TO EMCEEING OR RHYMING,LYRICS, FREESTYLING,etc...NOT RAP OR RAP INDUSTRY AND RAP MUSIC IS JUST THAT A BUSINESS TRANSACTION AND A MEANS OF SELLING UNITS AND ALBUMS THIS IS IN NO WAY like the contrary term EMCEEING which is FOCUSED ON THE ELEVATION OR EXPRESSION OF SKILL OR A GENUINE HONEST BEARING OF THE SOUL....also Freestyle is the action of creating rhymes impromptu without rehearsal or reading off a paper or saying a previously written or rehearsed set of lyrics.
LOCKER OR THE LOCKERS OR THE CAMPBELLOCKERS IS TO LOCKING OR ITS ORIGINAL TERM CAMPBELLOCKING
POPPING OR ELECTRIC BOOGIE or Boogie ( the term of just Boogie or Electric boogie was an east coast thing and a more fast or funky variation of the dance where as Popping or Electric Boogaloo on the west coast ( California , etc...) is more laid back and relaxed as a variation of the dance)......... POPPING IS TO POPPERS , BOOGIE BOYS/BOOGIE GIRLS,, THE ELECTRIC BOOGALOOS,ETC,,,- THERE ARE MANY VARIATIONS OF POPPING STYLES AS A SUB DANCE GENRE BUT THESE MANY VARIATIONS ARE NOT ACTUALLY POPPING WHICH IS A SPECIFIC VARIATION OF STYLE ITSELF - SOME VARIATIONS OF POPPING STYLES INCLUDE: TUTTING,STROBING,TICKING,ROBOTICS,SCARECROW,WAVING,LIQUID,BONE BREAKING OR FLEXING,ETC..... THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS POPLOCKING AND THESE DANCES LOCKING AND POPPING ARE SEPARATE DANCE FORMS, ALSO THESE ARE NOT A PART OF BBOYING OR NOR DO THESE DANCES HAVE ROOTS IN HIP HOP AS THEY WERE ADOPTED BY THE HIP HOP MOVEMENT AT THE TURN OF THE 1980'S - THEY COME FROM THE WEST COAST - CALIFORNIA - FROM THE STREETS EVERY PART OF CALI HAD DIFFERENT SPIN ON STYLES AND MOVES AND THE GANG CULTURE WAS INTERTWINED WITH THE DANCING.
- BOTH POPPING AND CAMPBELLOCKING WERE INTRODUCED TO THE WORLD THROUGH THE POPULAR TELEVISION SHOW " SOUL TRAIN" IN THE 1970's and from the tours they did around the era - many poppers and lockers traveled to the east coast and share this dance - many of those kids were ex gang members or troubled youth which is a common factor in HIP HOP or STREET DANCE expressions.....
some of your favorite Musicians like Michael Jackson ( learned moves from Popin' Taco of the Electric Boogaloos) , Usher , Justin timberlake , Janet Jackson , etc all do some variation of these dances and many dance studios today teach these dances as something like street jazz or hip hop choreography but they dont give proper credit where it is due.......
***WHAT IS BEAT BOXING?
BEAT BOX is a DRUM MACHINE! Not making beats with your MOUTH!
BEAT BOXING = Playing the DRUM MACHINE Live at a JAM
HUMAN BEAT BOXING = Making Beat Box Sounds with your MOUTH!
Lets get it right People!
GRAND MASTER FLASH was the first to Rock the BEAT BOX LIVE at a HIP HOP JAM, And then he made a Record called FLASH TO THE BEAT!
And the rest is History.
DOUGIE FRESH was a Crowd Pleaser MC, and then he started the HUMAN BEAT BOX TREND! We also had cats doing HUMAN ECHO CHAMBER and stuff like that before the Human Beat Box.
D NICE: The rapper down with KRS was the HUMAN TR 808 (the Drum Machine) ( listen to the song "SOUTH BRONNX" - BDP for reference)
DMX: The Rapper started out as the Human DMX (the drum machine)
Many Rappers or EMCEES started out as Human Beat Boxers and chose a particular Drum machine to make there name.
these list below are not limited to those mentioned and individual research highly advised to be sought out !!***
DEEJAYS: -Grandmaster Flash -Nickey Dee - Breakout -Baron -Desie -Ronie Ron -Darryl C -Supreme -Grandmaster Caz aka Cassanova Fly -Sinbad -Superman -Whiz Kid -Crazy Eddie -Chuck City -Afrika Bambaataa -Kevy Kev Rockwell -Ruddy Tee -Easy LG -Afrika Issac -Tyrone -Jojo -Kool DJ Dee -Chuck Chillout -Tony Tone -Evil D -Questlove -Bobbito -Spivey -Terminator X -Kool Herc -Kay Slay -Rockin Rob -Ted Smooth -Johnny Juice -Kenny Ken -Afrika Zambu -Zulu Queen Wanda Dee -Breakbeat Lou -Disco Wiz -Charlie Chase -Lean Rock -DP One -AJ -Afrika Islam -Hollywood -Disco King Mario -Clark Kent -Run Love -Cordio -Mean Gene -Beatmann -Jam Master Jay -Jimmie Jaz -Red alert -Chrome -Scott La Rock -Lord Finesse -Spinderella -Jazzy Jay -Grandwizard Theodore -Jazzy Joyce -Grandwizard Rasheen -Grandmixer DXT/DST -Shadow -GI Joe -Premier -Cheese -Skamrock -Q bert -Roc Raida
BBOYS/BGIRLS: - Honey rockwell -Baby Love -Ken Swift -K Mel -Kuriaki -Buck4 -Trace2 -Aby -Batch -Crazy Legs -Lil Crazy Legs -Frosty Freeze -Mr. Wiggles -Flip Rock -JoJo -Sau Sau -Wallace D -El dorado Mike -Keith/Kevin smith aka The Nigga Twins -Mauricio aka The next one -Fever One -Alien Ness -Lil Keith -Icey Ice -Poe One -Evo -Jimmy Lee -Jimmy Dee -Lil Lep -Spy -Beaver -Mr. Freeze -Kid Freeze -Rokafella -Kwikstep -Incredible Josh -Roxrite -Chino ( there are multiple) -Machine -Flearock -Abstrak -Buddha ( Canadian floor masters) - Powerful Pexter -Sundance -Ivan -Iron Monkey -Lady champ -Fastbreak -Waak One -Mr.Quik -Glydemaster -Kid Glyde -Nelly Nel -Kid David -Omar -Born -Physix -Chico -Luigi -Gravity -Du Knock -Paranoia -Ponytail Rosy -TaTa -Jiggz -Orko -Trixie -Cholly Rock -Speedy ( 3 different ones) -Rubberband ( 2 bboys and 1 legendary rocker) -Lucan rock -King Keith -Rip7 -Bom5 -Video -Floor Phantom -Vixx Vapors -Nasty Yass -Bonita -Asia One -Prada G -Liloi -Lenny Len -Teknyc -ATS -Fresh -Storm -Neguin -Action -Wayne Blizz -Zip -Spivey -Tati -Bailrock -Y not -Trac2 -El Nino -Lil alex -Yan The Shrimp -Hong10 -Casper -Smerf -Tyquan -Ken Fury -Cyclone -Zulu Gremlin -Breakeasy - King Uprock
BEATBOXERS: -Doug E. Fresh -Buffy ( The Fat Boys) -Rahzel -Kid Lucky -Reeps One -Biz Markie -Kenny Muhammad -Dub FX -Killa Kela -Shlomo -Dokaka -Kid Beyond -Beardyman -Hikakin -Vineeth Vincent -Skiller -Butterscotch
POPPERS AND LOCKERS: -Slim The Robot -Mickey -Kite -Greenteck -Reverso -Bruce Ykanji -Normski -Salah -Boogaloo sam -Boogaloo Shrimp -Poppin taco -Skeeter Rabbit -Poppin Pete -Get Loose Bruce -Klown -Popmaster Fabel -Mr.Wiggles -Zone -Floatmaster John -Suga Pop -Mr.Wave -Don Camblellock -Shabba Doo -Lockaroo -Creepin sid -Puppet Boozer -Robot Dane -Nam Hyan Joon -Slick Dogg -Slide -Toyman Skeet -Robot Joe -Scarecrow Sculley -Tickin Deck -Ant Man -Twist o Flex Don -Rubberband Man -GoGo -Fluky Luke -Mr.Penguin aka ReRun - Scoo B DOo - Cambellock Jr. -Tiny Love - Kid Wiggles -
EMCEES: -KRS ONE -Brother J -Kool Moe Dee -Chuck D -Immortal Technique -Ken Swift -Zulu Gremlin -Mr.Wiggles -Q rock -Wu Tang Clan -Sha rock -MC Search -MC Lyte -The Syndicate -Rasheed Chappel -Brother Ali -Big Pun -Dead Prez -Rebel Diaz -Vico C -King Sun -Wize Intelligent -Poor rightous Teachers -Big L -Naughty B Nature -Lord Finesse -Queen Latifa -Monie Love -Bahamadia -Tribe Called Quest -Q tip -Rakim -Intelligent Hoodlum aka Tragedy Khadafi -Mos Def aka Yasin Bey -Supernatural -Mad Lion -Jasiri X -Binary Star -Jungle Brothers -Big Daddy Kane -Jedi Mind Tricks -Vinnie Paz -RA The Ruged Man -Pebbly Pooh -Coke La Rock -Nas -Cold Crush Brothers -Grandmaster Caz -Grandmaster Melle Mel -Rodney C - K K rockwell -Public Enemy - X Clan -DMX -El General -Emicida -Tego Calderon -Lito y Polaco -Calle 13 -El Lapiz -Ivy Queen -Daddy Yankee - Cora E -Matisyahu -Notorious B.I.G -Eminem -Tupac -Ramell zee -Division X -Crash Crew -The Threacheous Three -Final Outlaw -Homeboy Sandman -Lisa Left Eye -Sista Soulja -Black UN -Collective Flow -MC K Swift -Leaders Of The New School -Lah Tere -Hopsin -Maino -Buckshot -Circa95 -YC The Cynic -Kurious George -GTP -Welfare Poets -Q Unique -Talib Kweli -Don Omar -Jin -Loaded Lux -Jeru the Damaja -Peter Gunz - Corey Gunz -Percee P -The Sargonites -Missy Elliot -Salt and Peppa -LL Cool J -The Sequence -Foxy Brown -Jean Grey -Saroc -Common -Eve -Jadakiss -Pharsyde -3rd Bass -Diamz -Roxanne Shante -Papoose -Beastie Boys -La Bruja -Smith and Wessun -Gangstarr -Lauren Hill -EPMD -Nice and Smooth -Arrested Development -Run DMC -Pete Rock -Main Source -Large Professor -Brand Nubian -M.O.P -Spoonie G -Heavy D -Beatnuts -Tony Touch -Narubi Selah -Davey D -Just Ice -The Funky Four -The Furious five - The Fearless four -Jazz O -Chino XL
WRITERS: (Graff): -How -Nosm -Bg183 -Bio -Stefroc -Bom5 -Mitch77 -Cap -Cope2 -Lee -Blade -Comet -Yes one -Yes2 -Ree2 -Lava 1.2 -Bama -Mico -Mike 171 -Rocky 184 -Eva62 -Barbara62 -Stayhigh149 -Kase2 -Riff170 -Abe -Kove -Taki182 -Cornbread -Cola188 -Edgar 125 -Kindo -Jerm -Twelph -Smc -Jab161 -Minx -Breezer -Sin -Duster -Seen( UA,TC5) -Skeme -Dondi -Duro -Doc(Arab) -Ces(Wish) -Hondo One -Daddy Kool -Pistol One -Pnut2 -Json -Miss17 -Claw -RD -Lace357 -Paze -Ghost -Ket -Joe182 -Billy167 -Phase2 -Pel -Kel one -Butch -Jester -In -Iz the Wiz -Turk62 -Killroy one -Shame125 -Sen4 -Sen one ( ibm) -Sen2 -Web -Jew -Enuf -Earsnot -Know -DG -West -DC -Fib -Utah -Veefer -LSD -Dero -Aim -Chino byi -Chintz -Can2 -Kasin -Raide -Sabe -Drax -Lommit -Sexer -Zimad -Zim one - Meres One -Cortez -Blen167 -Rusk -Skill -Revz -Vik one -Kyle -Jon156 -Chain3 -Kool131 -MK -Easy -Dean -Brim -Joz -BT -Dino -WG -Sane -Smith -Haze -Ven -Sento -Mear -JA -Krush -Dream -Eklips -Charlie -Keo One -Slave -Vulcan -Daim -Reas -Tuff Tim Twist -Last Man -Jesus Saves -Arc -Archer -Rebel -Part One -Nic707 -Noc167 -Nic one -Sach -Pove -Dare -Zulu King Slone -Caster -Gano -Wane -Zeso -Tatu -Will power -Too fly -shadow -Picasso -Deen -Twisto -KR -Bore -Ovie -Van2 -Sharp -Crash -Daze -Lady Pink -Roz -Shiro -Erotica67 -Tack -Spar -Sonic -Serve -Goal -Break -Tike -Cey -Quick -Jamestop -Ivory -Saber -2Esae -Superkool223 -Burner One -Spek -Trap -Dez -Trixter -Ruben -Pink -Goldie -Bill blast -Mode2 -Ream -T Kid170 -Med -Host -Kacer -Sien -Checker170 -Cliff139 -Clyde -Flint -Caine one -Kane -Merk -Obe -Osbe -Snake one -Chico -Nicer -Nace -Ton one -Kel139 -Futura 2000 -Poem -Per -Poet -Ban2 -Ram2 -Tracy168 -Revolt -Zephyr -Revok -Min -Doze -Mare139 -Shy147
ROCKERS: - King Uprock -Rob Nasty -Floor Phantom -Nasty Yass - Mighty Mike -Ringo -Ken Swift -Naco -clarky -Reski -Fano -Sam Lugo -Willie Estrada -Wary the Warrior -Vitamin D -Waak One -Breakeasy -Mr. Loose -Burn one -Doctor love -Papo -Enoch -Tiny Love -Spin -lil Dave -Viejo - Vixx Vapors - China - Rubberband ( From the Bronx,St. Marys area)
PEOPLE ORGANIZERS/FREEDOM FIGHTERS: -Malcolm X aka El Hajj el Malik EL Shabazz -Marcus Garvey -DR. york ( Malici Z York) -Black Panther Party (Huey Newton -Fred Hampton -Mumia Abu Jamal -Afeni Shakur -Motulu shakur) -The Young Lords Party ( -Richie Prerez -Pabo Guzman -Felipe Luciano -Jose Chacha Jimenez) - The Nation Of Islam ( -Louis Farrakhan -Elijah Muhammad ) -Clarence13x - The Nation Of Gods and Earths ( 5%) -Hugo Chaves -Che Guevarra -Nelson/Winnie Mandela -Shaka zulu -Chief Joseph -Chief sitting Bull -Yellow Benji ( The Ghetto Brothers) -Bam Bam ( The Black spades) -Afrika Bambaataa -Cacique Agueybana (Taino Borinken) -Simon bolivar -Pedro albizu Campos -Ramon emeterio Betances -Nat turner -Martin Luther King Jr. -Richard Milanovich -Chief Red Cloud -Chief Black Hoof -Chief pontiac -Wilma Mankiller -Anna Prieto Sandoval -Chief Seattle -Chief Cochise -Chief Dan George -Chief Crazy Horse -Dennis Banks -Russel Means -The American Indian Movement -Stokely Carmichael aka Kwame ture -Umar Johnson -Lolita Lebron
LITERATURE/BOOKS: -Subway Art - We Bgirls -The Gospel of Hip Hop -Blacks Law Dictionaries -The Green Book -The Science of Life -The Tao of Jeet Kune Do -Born In The Bronx -Down These Mean Streets -Malcolm X AutoBiography -The Holy Quran -The Holy Bible -The Art of War - The Art of Bboy - Ego Trips book of rap list - Cant Stop Wont Stop - Decoded - Bomb The Suburbs - The Dead Emcee Scrolls - Rakim told me - Pimp: The story of my life - Book of Rhymes: the poetics of HIP HOP - ICE: a memoir of ganster life and redemption from South Central to Hollywood - Resurrection, 1971-1996 - The Way I am - The Rose that Grew from Concrete - Now and Then - Who shot ya? 3 decades of HIP HOP photography - The Big Payback - Queens Reigns Supreme - E.A.R.L.: The Autobiography of DMX - Making Beats - The Wu Tang manual - Back In the Days - Yes Yes yall - And it dont stop - Theres A God on th Mic - King of Rock - The Art Of Emceeing - Tougher than Leather -Oh Snap:rap photography of Ricky Powell - Hip Hop Files: Photographs, 1979-1984 -Notorious C.O.P - DEFinition: The Art and Design of Hip-Hop - The Willie Lynch Letter and the Making of a Slave - The Souls of Black Folk - I Make My Own rules - Revalations: Theres a light after the lime - Check The Technique - Palante: the Young Lords Party - The Tainos - Driven By The Movement - Samurai among panthers - The Lost Cities of Afrika - Assata : autobiography - Seize The time - To die for the People - Ready for Revolution - Afeni shakur - Snitch culture - The Great Aids hoax - The Chakras - exhiled egyptians - You are becoming a galactic human - The Martial artist book of five rings - Subterranian worlds inside earth - The Lost world of Aghrti - Acupuncture and Acupressure guide - Native American history - March Of The Titans - Washing of the Spears: The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation - A Jailhouse Lawyer's Manual - HIP HOP Decoded - Enoch the ethiopian - 500 nations -When Justice Calls - What is Nuwaupu - Lies my teacher told me - Sly and the family stone: an oral history - Healing the criminal heart - Puerto ricos revolt for independance - Born in blood : the lost secrets of Freemasonry - they call it graffitti
Movies/Video to view: -Wildstyle -Beatstreet -The Freshest Kids -From Mambo to HIP HOP -Beef -Inside The Circle -The Matrix -Oblivion -Soylent Green -They Live -Piece By Piece -Mural -Tats Cru Mural Kings -Cope2 Kings Destroy -Krush Groove -Bgirl -Radiant Child -Universe Of Keith Haring -Tribe Called Quest -Beats Rhymes and Life -Kool Moe Dee unsung TV Episode -The Art of Rap -8 mile -Video Music Box TV show - The Bridge TV show -NY 77 The coolest year in hell -Vickin spree (popmaster fabel) -Apache Line ( Popmaster Fabel) - 80 blocks from Tiffany St. -Abstrumental - roxrite dvd -The Blueprint (Alien Ness) -Thrive -Mike Tyson Undisputed Truth -The 5 Deadly Venoms - The 36th Chamber of Shaolin -Enter The Dragon -Game Of Death -Fist of Fury - The Chinese Connection -Masters Of The Arts Presented by Wesley snipes -Scratch -Big Pun Legacy -Tupac Ressurected -Zeitgeist -Supersize Me - Graffiti rock TV show - Soul Train TV show - The basement TV show - YO MTV raps Tv show - The Revolution of Immortal Technique - 2 Turntables and a Microphone- The Last Dragon - Tupac resurrection - Hidden Colors -WU: the story of Wu Tang Clan - Beat Kings - Bombin - Bomb The System -
HIP HOP PHOTOGRAPHERS/ potography to check out: Joe Conzo - Ernie Paniccioli - Jamel shabazz - Martha cooper - Henry Chalfant - William "nic-One" Green - "Chino BYI" - Fransisco Reyes -
HIP HOP FLYER ORIGINATORS:
Phase 2 (Flash flyers) - Buddy Esquire( Funky 4 flyers) - Cisco Kid( Herculords) - A Riley ( L Brothers flyers)- Danny Tongue aka Danny T. (Flash flyers) - Vega Ray -Eddie Ed (Buddy Esquire's Brother) - Poo 2 - Straightman -
HIP HOP CLUBS/VENUES
The Devils Nest - Ecstasy Garage - Roxy's - Skate Key - T- Connection - Disco Fever - The Rooftop -Harlemworld Entertainment complex - The Helio - Studio 54 -
NOTABLE EVENTS IN HIP HOP HISTORY:
-1925 - Earl Tucker ("Snake Hips") was a performer at the Cotton Club during the days of Duke Elling ton. His style of dance is defintly related that of waving that you see young Hip Hop dancers still doing today. and he also had similar floats and back slides that he used in his act as well.
-1940 - IN JAMAICA THE 1940'S THOMAS WONG BETTER KNOWN AS "TOM THE GREAT" SEBASTIAN BEGAN USING A BOOMING SOUND SYSTEM AND AMERICAN RECORDS TO STEEL CROWDS FROM LOCAL BANDS.
-1950 - Competitions between two major Dj's in Jamaica leads to the "Sound Clash" Coxsone Dodd's "Down Beat" - Vs - Duke Reid's "The Trojan". These Dj's battle it out with exclusives and specials.
-1956 - "Vaughn Bode" Creates the "Cheech Wizard" Character that will become famous with graffiti writers to come for decades internationally.
-1959 - Parks Commissioner Robert Moses began building an expressway through the heart of the Bronx. As a result, the middle class Italian, German, Irish, and Jewish neighborhoods disappeared overnight. In addition, businesses and factories relocated and left this borough. These exiting middle classes and businesses were replaced by poor black and Hispanic families. Accompanying these poor people were crime, drug addiction,and Unemployment. These conditions would be responsible for high rates of asthma and the spawn of the Street Gangs and HIP HOP as a movement in the years to come.
-1962 - James Brown records Live At The Apollo. Brown’s drummer Clayton Fillyau influences a sound that is now known as the break beat. The break beat would later inspire the b-boy movement, as breakers danced to these beats at block parties and many Deejays and Emcees would sample this sound among other great funk musicians -BUT JAMES BROWN AS THE GODFATHER OF SOUL HAD ONE OF THE MOST IMPACTFUL INFLUENCE ON HIP HOP.
-1965- Malcolm X was on stage and about to speak at a rally at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem, N.Y., when three members of the Nation of Islam shot him- he was in the process to try to put the United states on trial for human rights crimes with the united nations - he was also ready to work with Dr. King to push the envelope for the betterment of Black people and the have nots. - Muhammad Ali, born Cassius Clay in 1942 in Louisville, Ky., won a
AROUND THIS TIME BROTHERS LIKE "CORNBREAD" OUT OF PHILADELPHIA WERE STARTING THE WRITING/ GRAFF MOVEMENt
-1966 - In late October , Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a revolutionary black nationalist and socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982.- they inspire an entire generation of black and brown youth to come to be Pro- Black and engage in community activism.
-1967 - OAKLAND NATIVE "IRON MAN" (ALBERT MILTON) PERFORMS ON LOCAL "JAY PAYTON" TVSHOW.HIS STYLE WAS CONSIDERED A COMBINATION OF THE JAMES BROWN SKATE WITH ELEMENTS OF PANTOMIME, WHICH WOULD LATER BE THE FOREGROUNDS TO MANY OF THE FUNK STYLE DANces
-1968 - A gang named Savage Seven would hit the streets of the Bronx. Savage Seven later transforms into The Black Spades, before eventually many members became a part of the organization today known as the Universal Zulu Nation. Black Spades aka FOTBS - foundation of the black spades - Afrika Bambaataa was a division warlord for the Black Spades before taking his own path with his friends with UZN and The Soul Sonic force. - AROUND THIS TIME A BROTHER BY THE NAME OF "RUBBER BAND" A HICK FROM PUERTO RICO WHOS FAMILY SETTLED IN BROOKLYN, WHILE HE SETTLED IN THE BRONX. TOOK A POPULAR NEW YORK CITY GANG DANCE AND BROUGHT IT TO THE NYC DISCOS AND THUS WAS BORN THE DANCE WE KNOW TODAY AS "ROCKIN", OR "THE ROCK". THIS DANCE BECAME A POPULAR CITY WIDE DANCE. WHERE FIERCE DANCE COMPETITIONS TOOK PLACE IN BRONX, MANHATTAN AND BROOKLYN - "JAMES BROWN" RECORDS A BBOY ANTHEM "GIVE IT UP OR TURN IT LOOSE"WITH "NATE JONES" ON THE DRUMS (KING RECORDS.
-1970 - The Last Poets release their eponymous debut album. It's combination of spare funk and aggressive, socially-conscious spoken word will be an early brick in the foundation of what would come to be hip-hop. - DJ U-ROY HOTS JAMAICAN POP CHARTS WITH 3 SONGS IN THE TOP TEN,
WITH "BERNARD PURDIE" ON DRUMS- in NYC A YOUNG GREEK KID GOT INSPIRED BY SEEING "JULIO 204" TAG, THE HE DECIDED TO PUT HIS NICK NAME NEXT TO A 183 STREET SIGN AND THUS WAS BORN THE FAMOUS "TAKI 183" - he was the one of the first writers to be in press (Ny Times) and spark a large interest for Fame as it were in the game of writing.
-1972- DJ Hollywood, a club DJ from Manhattan; begins talking in rhyming over popular disco hits at his trendy night spots - JIMMY CASTOR BUNCH RELEASE A classic BBOY ANTHEM "IT'S JUST BEGUN" - RUFUS THOMAS RELEASES "DO THE FUNKY PENGUIN - EVA62,HARRY89, JUNIOR161, CAY161, AND CC10 PAINTED WHAT IS PROBABLY THE BIGGEST PAINTINGS TO DATE ON A BROADWAY LINE SUBWAY STATION. - THE SOUL ARTISTS CAME TO GHETTO FAME
- 1973 August 11th - DJ Kool Herc the father of HIP HOP ( his monster sound system was the HERCULOIDS and first notable Emcees to rock jams were among names like coke la rock , Clark Kent, pebble pooh , etc...)- The Father of HIP HOP has the first jam at 1520 Sedgewick ave. inside the community room ( he later took it outside down the block and to local spots and is credited for what he called the merry go round which was looping the break where early original "Bboys" or "Bronx boys" or "Break boys" as he called them would "go off" and "Break Shit Up" - BOB MARLEY AND THE WAILERS RELEASE THERE BREAKTHROUGH LP "CATCH FIRE" -
REGGAE MOVIE "THE HARDER THEY COME" STARING JIMMY CLIFF FEATURES THE TALENTED "SCOTTY" TOASTING ON THE SOUNDTRACK. - November 12 - Afrika Bambaataa THE GODFATHER OF HIP HOP - THE AMEN RA AND MASTER OF RECORDS and Aziz Jackson ,Kusa Stokes , Zambu Lanier , Ahmad Henderson form The Organization later known as The Zulu Nation then the Mighty Zulu Nation then the Almighty Zulu Nation and today it goes by The Universal Zulu Nation - this is the first family and organized structure in HIP HOP as a viable social movement and youth driven revolutionary energy and concept.This was created to have the local gangs and outlaws get together and act essentially in everyones best interest to just be peaceful and do these events and activities placed under the umbrella of the HIP HOP lifestyle , philosophy and approach - NEW YORK MAGAZINE DOES AN ARTICLE ON WRITING THAT FEATURED A DRAWING DONE IN BUFFALO MARKERS BY "SNAKE1" AND AN "EL MARKO" TAG OUTLINED WITH A BALL POINT PEN BY "STAY HIGH" WHICH HELPED TO SPARK THE USE OF BLACK BOOKS. AND GIVES AN AWARD TO TAKI FOR BEST PIECE. - THE INCREDIBLE BONGO BAND RELEASE A BBOY ANTHEM WITH THE HIP HOP HIT RECORD"APACHE" (PRIDE RECORDS) ON THE "BONGO ROCK" ALBUM. THIS ONE TIME MOWTOWN SESSION GROUPS WHICH WAS RUMORED TO HAVE BEEN THE BAND BEHIND THE TEMPTATION'S "CLOUD NINE" WOULD MAKE A COVER OF THE SHADOW'S "APACHE" AND BLOW IT UP TO BE ONE OF THE GREATEST (IF NOT THE GREATEST) BBOY ANTHEM OF ALL TIME - Kool HERCS FIRST DJ JOB AT A CLUB CALLED THE TWILIGHT ZONE - LEGENDARY BATTLE TAKES PLACE BETWEEN TWO OF THE TOP BBOYS OF ALL TIME.SAU SAU -VS-TRICKSIE THE OUT COME WAS SAID TO BE SAU SAU WINNING IN A GREAT BATTLE -
- 1974 - around this time DJ Grandmaster Flash ( Inventer of quick mix theory ) began to spin in the Bronx with the L Brothers then in due time with the furious 5 and DJ/EMCEE Grandmaster Caz( First person to Deejay/Emcee at same time and first ghost writer) also formerly known as Casanova Fly was also beginning to do his thing - AROUND THIS TIME ONE OF HIP HOP'S ALL TIME CROWD PLEASER DJ/ MC'S "LOVE BUG STARSKI" STARTED MAKIN REFERENCES TO THIS CULTURE USING THE WORDS "HIP HOP" ACCORDING TO LEGENDS LIKE "BAMBATTA", STARSKI IS ONE OF THE PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE WORD HIP HOP the other person is Keith COWBOY from the Furious 5.... - MTA FIGHTS BACK AGAINST WRITING BY STARTING A WAR ON GRAFF in the NYC area - MicHAEL JACKSON DOES HIS FAMOUS ROBOT TO "DANCING MACHINE" -
- 1975 TBB - The Bronx Boys Rocking Crew was formed and is one of the premier founding crews creating the foundation of the art of Bboying - DJ Grandwizard Theodore accidentally invents "The Scratch" and same year Kool Herc is hired as a DJ at the Hevalo Club. - AROUND THIS TIME HERC WOULD GET A BROTHA BY THE NAME OF COKE LA ROCK TO SAY CROWD PLEASER RHYMES ON THE MIC WHICH WOULD THEN LAY THE FOUNDATION for Emceeing - GRAFF CULT HERO, AND UNDERGROUND COMIC BOOK LEGEND "VAUGHN BODE" DIES, BUT HIS LEGEND WILL LIVE WITH GRAFF WRITERS FOREVER
-1976 - DJ Afrika Bambaataa performs at the Bronx River Center. Bambaataa’s first battle against Disco King Mario sparks off the DJ battling that is now embedded in the culture. - A group of party promoters called the Force stumble across a young DJ named Kool DJ Kurt. One particularly bold and aggressive member of the Force is a young man named Russell Simmons - The MERCEDES LADIES WERE FOUNDED, THEY WOULD PAVE THE WAY FOR FEMALE DJ'S and MC'S.Baby D, Sherri-Sher,RD Smiley,Zina-Zee,DJ LaSpank,Eve-a-Def The Mercedes Ladies were the sister group to the Original L'Brothers. DJ Grandwizard Theodore, Mean Gene, Busy Bee Starski, (not Lovebug) Ruby Dee, Waterbed Kevie Kev, Master Rob. We were DJ Baby Dee, DJ RD Smiley, DJ La Spank, MC Sherri-Sher, MC Eve-a-Def, MC Zina Zee. ===""We became honorary Zulu Queens in 1978 because the Queens had beef with us and thought we didn't respect Lisa Lee. (Not True.. We dug Lisa) Bam deaded that by making us ZULU Queens so there could never be beef.."" - BBoy battle between TDK, TBB, AND ROCKWELL Association -VS- STARCHILD LA ROCK (FEATURING TRAC 2, SPY AND JOJO) WITH THE HELP OF JOJO AND SPY'S PATENTED SHOE SHINE ROUTINE, STARCHILD TOOK THE Battle - Granny & Robotroid, Inc. The first professional Bay Area Boogaloo/Robottin dance group, managed by Deborah "Granny" Johnson (aka “The Bay Area Granny”) to create, choreograph, and incorporate their own flavor style of dance called Struttin, as well as obtain national and international acclaim via the 1976 ”Chuck Barris’ Gong Show” and KTVU Fox 2 “On The Air".
-1977- in NYC during the hot summer there was a Blackout helping many local NYC Poor people get speakers,and deejay equipment, some gear and you can pretty much name it - the local stores were looted and after this blackout because of more accessibility to these musical or other resources this greatly helped the growth of HIP HOP because many crews were formed - DJS popped up everywhere now , etc.... During this year also there was a meeting Afrika Bambaataa sent The Nigga Twins to see Batch ( godfather of TBB_ to meet with Bambaataa at Webster houses to discuss a truce among UZN and TBB as TBB was in large numbers in the Bronx/ NYC area and to prevent any senseless voilence ....same year DJ Kool Herc is nearly stabbed to death at one of his parties. Although the assault placed a permanent dent on Herc's career, Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, Disco Wiz (the first Latino DJ), and Disco King Mario kept performing around town. -Russell "Rush" Simmons moves the Force to Queens and convinces Kool DJ Kurt to begin rapping. Simmons decides to change Kurt's name to Kurtis Blow and enlists his kid brother, Joey, to be Kurt's DJ. Joey changes his name to 'DJ Run" - KRAFTWERK A GERMAN BAND RELEASES THE FAMED SONG TRANS EUROPE EXPRESS WHICH WOULD LATER BE THE FOUNDATION FOR AFRIKA BAMBAATAA'S ELECTRO FUNK SOUND - PARLIAMENT RELEASES THE FUNK HIT "FLASHLIGHT" - THE TRANSIT AUTHORITY STARTS A MAJOR BUFF IN A CONEY ISLAND TRAIN YARD WITCH WOULD COST THEM $400.000.00 ANNUALLY. THEY USED A CHEMICAL MIX OF PETROLEUM HYDROXIDE. WHICH WAS REFEREED TO AS ORANGE CRUSH BY WRITERS (NAMED AFTER AGENT ORANGE, WHICH WAS USED IN THE VIETNAM WAR) - AROUND THIS TIME A PIONEERING GROUP FROM WHICH A BROTHER BY THE NAME OF" BOOGALOO SAM" (WHO CREATED THE DANCE CALLED POPPIN AS WE KNOW IT TODAY WITH IT'S ROOTS IN THE WEST COAST FUNK STYLES THAT CAME BEFORE THEM )ALONG WITH MEMBERS TICKIN WILL, SCARECROW SCALLY, CREEPIN CID, POPIN PETE, TWISTI FLEX DON, PUPPET BOOZER, ROBOT DANE, SKEETER RABBIT, AND MANY OTHERS, THEY FORMED THE GROUP "THE ELECTRIC BOOGALOOS" (note: also...POPPIN is refereed to as the continuous flexing of the muscles to the beat...not waving, tutting, botting, filmore, strutting, sacing, or other styles that Sam and the EB's did not create)
- 1978- Grandmaster Caz (aka Cassanova Fly) and Bambaataa engage in a DJ battle at the Police Athletic League. - Kurtis Blow, who was being managed by Russell Simmons, decides to hire Simmons’ brother, Run FROM RUN DMC aka DJ RUN , as his DJ. -DJing, up to this point the primary force in hip-hop, begins to take a backseat to MCing - WHIPPER WHIP AND DOT ROCK FORMED A GROUP CALLED "THE GESTAPO CREW" ( not to be confused with Zulu strong arm security force Gustapo Crew and the Casanova Crew and Spade members) , WHICH WOULD LATER LEAD THEM TO CREATING ONE OF THE GREATEST MC CREWS OF ALL TIME "THE FANTASTIC FIVE MC'S" Grand Wizard Theodore (Theodore Livingston) Waterbed Kev (Kevin Strong) Master Rob (Robin Strong) Dot-A-Rock (Darryl Mason) Prince Whipper Whip (James Whipper) Ruby Dee (Rubin Garcia) - BBOYIN" BEGINS TO DIE DOWN IN THE BRONX AND MANHATTAN GHETTOS - A COMPANY NAMED ROLAND CREATES THE 808 DRUM MACHINE - The DISCO FEVER OPENS IT'S DOORS AND BECOMES A POPULAR HIP HOP CLUB IN THE BRONX -"THE ELECTRIC BOOGALOOS" WOULD DO A PERFORMANCE ON "SOUL TRAIN" THAT WOULD EXPLODE ALL OVER THE WORLD, WHERE EVEN A YOUNG MICHAEL JACKSON WOULD EVEN ASK THEM TO TEACH HIM.
-1979 the first slew of disco-HIP HOP flops came out in the summer and only one really broke the market for HIP HOP or RAP in actuality as a musical genre...the song to make the cut was "Rappers Delight" by the sugar Hill Gang..the lyrics for Big Bank Hank in the entire song were ghost written by Grandmaster Caz so you also have HIP HOPS 1st recording scam or hustle as GMC was never paid or given credits for his lyricism..... - "MARK BODE" (THE SON OF LEGENDARY ARTIST "VAUGHN BODE") STARTS WORKING AT AGE 15 FOR HEAVY METAL MAGAZINE AND CONTINUES HIS DADS LEGACY HE ALSO STAYS CONNECTED WITH THE GRAFF WORLD THAT EMBRACED HIS FATHER AS WELL AS HIS OWN WORK - Grandmaster Flash forms one of the most influential rap groups ever, The Furious 5: Grandmaster Flash (Joseph Saddler), Melle Mel (Melvin Glover), Kidd Creole (Nathaniel Glover), Cowboy (Keith Wiggins), Raheim (Guy Williams), and Mr. Ness (Eddie Morris). - Around the same time, another great group –Wendy Clark aka 'Lady B' begins spinning hip-hop records on WHAT 1340 AM in Philadelphia;furthering hip-hop's expansion outside of New York. Later that year, she also becomes one of hip-hop's first female artists on wax when she releases "To the Beat Y'all." - The Funky Four+One is formed with one of hip-hop's first female MCs, Sha Rock --The Cold Crush Four aka THE COLD CRUSH BROTHERS – was formed, comprising of Charlie Chase, Tony Tone, Grand Master Caz, Easy Ad, JDL, and Almighty KG. -Mr. Magic’s ‘Rap Attack’ becomes the first hip-hop radio show on WHBI ..........TBB one of the original and prolific Bboy Crews disbanded resulting in the formation of Rock Steady Crew who would throught the 80s and 90s help lead the dance of rocking into the hearts , captivation ,exploitation and business of the international world around NYC and the USA - helping to also place other crews like themselves in the 80s into the path of great entertainment and cultural opportunities. these Poor youth got to see the world ,perform and inspire millions in person and on the TV Screens but all at the cost of their integrity , creative control and the entire generation of 80s Bboys and HIP HOPPERS in NYC were put through many trials and errors from going through the harsh business of being managed and robbed and not knowing business in itself as a young teenager or adult, crack hitting the communities killing family and friends and many HIP HOP heads became substance abusers or dealers themselves and many other things...... much of the original Bboys who were everything from Stick up kids to simply the local dancer was from the late 7os to late 80s sent to the Army/Navy , went to Jobcore or to work and support a family , ended up in Jail because of drug dealing and street life , etc...so having RSC be one of the few crew to carry the torch meant so much to the dance still being alive and thriving however there are many Original HIP HOPPERS not only Bboys currently in the jail system of the state of NY and some even still live in NYC who thankfuly survived but are not known or mentioned who alsi contributed VASTLY to HIP HOP as much as RSC and TBB even though it must be noted TBB and the original Bboy crews did not exactly get to shine and be credited untill many years later after the fact and we are still working on giving those props to those who deserve them nd figuring out the Truth THERE IS ALOT OF PUBLISHED HISTORY ON HIP HOP WITH FALSE INFORMATION BECAUSE JOURNALIST AND REPORTERS SOMETIMES HAVE ASSUMED THINGS AND SIMPLY NOT ASK THE RIGHT PEOPLE OR ABOUT DETAILS TO PIONEERS AND THE FACT IS INDIVIDUALS HAVE EMBELLESHED HISTORICAL MEMORY AND SIMPLY LIED TO GET PAID OR BECAUSE THEY CANT REALLY REMEMBER BACK THEN THEY WERE PROBALY DUSTED UP OR HIGH ON WEED AND DRUNK AND YOUNG SO THEY DID NOT CARE TO REMEMBER YEARS AND THAT TYPE OF THING........
-1980 - Afrika Bambaata and the Zulu Nation release their first 12" called Zulu Nation Throwdown Pt. 1 on Paul Winley Records. - After meeting Fab 5 Freddy and others, Blonde releases "Rapture" featuring rap vocals by lead singer Debbie Harry. -Kurtis Blow, the first rapper to appear on national television (Soul Train), releases "The Breaks" on Mercury Records. The record goes on to sell more than a million copies -At a DJ battle in Two-Fifths Park in Hollis, Queens; DJ Run and his friend, Darryl "Easy Dee" McDaniels, meet a young DJ named Jason "Jazzy Jase" Mizell later known as RUN DMC when they come together
-1981- Grandmaster Flash releases “The Adventures of Grand Master Flash on the Wheels of Steel," the first record to ultimately capture the sounds of live DJ scratching on wax -n February 14th, The Funky 4 plus One More perform their classic hit, “That's The Joint” on NBC's Saturday Night Live becoming the first hip hop group to appear on national television - The Beastie Boys are formed. The group consists of Adam Horovitz (King Ad-Rock), Adam Yauch (MCA), Michael Diamon (Mike D - ROCK STEADY CREW BATTLES DYNAMIC ROCKERS AT LINCOLN CENTER -Whodini becomes the first rap group to shoot an official video for their song "Magic's Wand."
- 1982 - Afrika Bambaataa and Soulsonic force release "Planet Rock" helping to launch UZN to new heights and change what is the HIP HOP sound - Grandmaster flash and the Furious 5 release " The Message" changing Emceeing forever by showing a social context in rhyme - Kool Moe Dee humiliates Busy Bee in a spontaneous rap battle at HARLEM WORLD ENTERTAINMENT COMPLEX. Since then, emcee battling has become an inseparable part of hip-hop. - Fab 5 Freddy and Charlie Ahearn co-produce Wild Style, a hip-hop film featuring Cold Crush Brothers, Grandmaster Flash, Grandwizard Theodore, DJ AJ, Grandmixer D.S.T, graf writers Lee, Zephyr, Fab 5 Freddy, Lady Pink, Crash, Daze, Dondi, and members of the Rock Steady Crew. Wild Style has since inspired several other hip-hop-themed movies. - In the winter of 1982 the Rock Steady Crew was invited to perform at the original Ritz nightclub. The list of performers that night included the Punk Rock group BOW WOW WOW, Afrika Bambaataa and the Jazzy 5. Since Afrika Bambaataa was known by many as the "Godfather of Hip-Hop", the Rock Steady Crew was honored to be on the same bill. After their performance, Crazy Legs and Frosty Freeze asked Afrika Bambaataa if they could be down with the Zulu Kings, the most highly respected of all b-boy crews. Afrika Bambaataa allowed them as well as the entire Rock Steady Crew to become members of the Zulu Kings, knowing that they would also become an integral part of the Zulu Nation. Soon after that performance the Rock Steady Crew took the downtown club scene by storm. They became caught up in a culture clash of Rastafarians, Punk Rockers and Hip-Hop heads
-1983- Grandmaster Flash sues Sugarhill Records for $5 million in royalties. The dispute causes the group to break up, signaling the looming danger of corporate control in hip-hop - Ice T helps pioneer gangsta rap in the west coast with his singles “Body Rock" and "Killers." - RUN DMC released " Its Like That" and "Sucker MC'S" changing how people saw Emceeing techniques once more in the game...ROCK STEADY CREW was asked by the Queen of England to perform at the Royal Variety Performance in aid of the Artist's Benevolent Fund. During these spectacular performances Charisma Records approached the Rock Steady Crew with a record deal. The record "Hey You, The Rock Steady Crew" was in the top ten charts in Great Britain and sold over a million copies.The Crew, however, saw very little of the proceeds. Due to their lack of knowledge of the music industry at such a young age, the company took advantage of the Crew and would not allow them any creative input toward their own project
-1984 -Jazzy Jay and Rick Rubin team up to launch one of the most important record labels ever, Def Jam Records. Def Jam releases its first record by Hose which was Rick Rubin's College band followed by “It’s Yours” by T La Rock, followed by LL Cool J’s “I Need A Beat. - Hip-hop discovers that touring is a great way to generate income, as the Fresh Fest concert featuring Whodini, Kurtis Blow, Fat Boys, and Run DMC, reels in $3.5 million for 27 dates. -Dougie Fresh (aka The Entertainer) releases The Original Human Beat Box (Vindertainment Records) -Battle rap assumes the spotlight in hip-hop, as UTFO’s (formerly the backup dancers for Whodini)“Roxanne Roxanne” diss song attracts over 100 responses.The most popular response came from a 14-year old female named Roxanne Shante. Shante’s “Roxanne’s Revenge” allegedly recorded in Marley Marl’s living room sold more than 250,000 copies - The film "Breakin" is released; with "Beat Street" coming soon after; continuing the hip-hop push into Hollywood." Beat Street" also showcases a young performer named Doug E. Fresh, who has the uncanny ability to 'beatbox' - mimic musical effects using only his mouth.
-1985 - A young former delinquint-turned-rap-hopeful named Kris Parker meets social worker-and-sometimes-DJ Scott Sterling (aka Scott La Rock) at a Bronx homeless shelter. The two decide to form a rap group called Boogie Down Productions - Doug E. Fresh records his classic single, "The Show," with the Get Fresh Crew and his new partner, MC Ricky D (aka Slick Rick. - A 16-year-old LL Cool J releases his debut album, "Radio." It is the first album to be released by up-and-coming rap label, Def Jam.-Def Jam finances and releases it's own rap movie, "Krush Groove". Based on Russell Simmons life and starring Blair Underwood (as Russell), Run DMC, Kurtis Blow, the Fat Boys and the newly-signed Beastie Boys; the film becomes a hit
-1986 -Queens native MC Shan and his superproducer cousin, Marley Marl, release the single 'The Bridge.' Though virtually unnoticed by the mainstream press, the song is an instant classic in hip-hop circles. Featuring steller 'new-school' production from Marl and clever lyrics in which Shan arrogantly announts his home, the Queensbridge Projects, hip-hop's new homebase; the song raised the ire of the newly-formed, South Bronx-based Boogie Down Productions. BDP's KRS-One disses Shan, Marl and Queens equally in the hard-hitting single, 'The Bridge Is Over;' igniting hip-hop's first major rivalry and leaving fans eagerly awaiting Boogie Down Production's first full-length album - Beastie Boys release debut album - A new hip-hop duo named Eric B. & Rakim release their first single, "Eric B. Is President." It is another benchmark moment in hip-hop; as Rakim's clever wordplay and complex rhyme schemes usher in a new era of MCing as an artform
-1987 -Following the release of Boogie Down Productions’ Criminal Minded LP, Scott LaRock is shot and killed in the South Bronx while attempting to settle a dispute. - Public Enemy stuns the world with their introductory album, Yo! Bum Rush The Show, signaling the genesis of politically-charged hip-hop ,The original members of the group include Chuck D (Carlton Ridenhour), Flavor Flav (William Drayton), Professor Griff (Richard Griffin), and DJ Terminator X (Norman Rogers) - A former L.A. drug dealer named Eazy-E (born Eric Wright) uses his money to finance a small indie rap label called Ruthless Records. He signs a local group called H.B.O. as his first act. He also recruits Andre 'Dr. Dre' Young-- a DJ/Producer from the R&B group World Class Wreckin' Cru; and Oshea Jackson, an up-and-coming MC who calls himself Ice Cube -Eric B. & Rakim release their debut album, "Paid In Full," kick-starting hip-hop's love affair with James Brown samples. The emergence of Rakim, in particular, heralds the dawn of the modern MC.---L.A. rapper, Ice-T, releases his debut album, "Rhyme Pays," and becomes one of the first West Coast MCs to garner national attention. His single, 'Six In the Morning," is groundbreaking in it's harsh and explicit depiction of street hustling and the criminal lifestyle.--Philadelphia duo DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince debut with "Rock the House." With their fun, good-natured rhymes and humorous videos; the twosome become a favorite on MTV and the album goes gold
-1988 - After years of being neglected by the mainstream media, hip-hop gets its own show on MTV, "Yo! MTV Raps." before this locally in NYC you could only see HIP HOP on "Video Music Box" on TV. -N.W.A pioneers the gangsta rap movement with their gold album, Straight Outta Compton -BIG DADDY KANE RELEASES "LONG LIVE THE KANE" ALBUM - HE INFLUENCES AN ENTIRE WAVE OF EMCEES TO FOLLOW -Erick Sermon and Parish Smith, collectively known as EPMD, release their debut - MC LYTE releases her debut album - Afrika Bambaataa froms the Native Tongues crew and, (after hearing an underground single called 'Wrath of My Madness'); recruits a young female MC from New Jersey named Queen Latifah- A trio of friends from Harlem NY, the Jungle Brothers, release their debut album, 'Straight Out The Jungle' on the small Idler label. Though the album doesn't gain much attention, it does provide a new slant on hip-hop that is neither 'gangsta' nor overtly political. Joining up with Afrika Bambaataa's "Native Tongues' crew, and incorporating elements of jazz and house music and using Afrocentric themes, the Jungles Brothers introduce a new subgenre that would later be dubbed 'alternative'
-1989 - After a life-long battle with crack addiction, Cowboy, a member of Grandmaster Flash’s Furious 5 dies at the age of 28 -A group of high school friends join the ever growing movement The Native Tongues as promoters of the Afrocentricity Movement to make African-Americans aware of their heritage - these friends would later form A TRIBE CALLED QUEST (Q-Tip, Ali Shaheed Muhammad, Phife Dawg, and Jarobi) - other notable members of The Native tongues are The Jungle Brothers , De La Soul , Queen Latifa ,etc...much of the Native Tongue members were also affliated with The Universal Zulu Nation in some light. -The Grammy committee announces that rap will be given it's own official Grammy catagory. The news is bittersweet, however, after it is announced that the presentation will not be televised. As a result, many of the most prominent rappers, (including Salt-N-Pepa, Public Enemy, DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince, Ice-T and more), host a Boycott-The-Grammys Party on MTV the night of the broadcast. DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince go on to win the award - Queen Latifa releases her Debut album - In an effort to quell the surge of Black-On-Black crime in New York (and as tribute to Scott La Rock); KRS-One organizes the Stop the Violence movement with several New York rappers. Soon, the Movement goes national as West Coast MCs get involved as well. The result is two public-service singles denouncing violence, 'Self Destruction' in New York, and 'We're All In the Same Gang' in Los Angeles - DE LA SOUL releases their debut
-1990 - 2 Pac joins Digital Underground as a dancer and a roadie -The "Stretch & Bobbito Show" is launched - Both a Florida record store owner and Luther Campbell are arrested over 2 Live Crew’s controversial album, As Nasty as They Wanna Be -Will Smith aka The Fresh Prince is tapped to star in a new sitcom, dubbed "The Fresh Prince of Bel Air." -Popular rapper Heavy D. convinces Andre Harrell, the president of Uptown Records (Heavy D's label), to take on a young college student/dancer named Sean Combs ( Puff Daddy aka P. Diddy) as an intern. -Digital Underground releases their debut album
-1991 - The Notorious B.I.G. is featured in the “Unsigned Hype” column of The Source magazine -In 1991 Mr. Wiggles approached Crazy Legs about an idea he and Fable (Magnificent Force) had for a Hip-Hop musical. Crazy Legs (with the help of Mr. Wiggles) then needed to persuade Ken Swift to start dancing again in order to have Ken involved as well. The musical was called "So, What Happens Now?". Rock Steady member Buck 4 (R.I.P) provided the perfect scenario to base the musical on. He said, "You don't know what it feels like to go fill out a job application ...where it says, 'what do you do?' what do I write? I spin on my head?" "So, What Happens Now?" was the critics choice in the New York Times and received rave reviews in The Village Voice, The Daily News and El Diario. In 1992, they received a standing ovation lead by Gregory Hines at the Kennedy Center Honors where Gregory Peck and the Nicholas Brothers were all in attendance. - SAME YEAR ROCK STEADY CREW HAD ITS FIRST REUNION INSPIRING A NEW WAVE OF BREAKERS AND RE-INSPIRING SOME OLDER BREAKERS TO ROCK AGAIN...Ice Cube stars in the gritty urban drama "Boyz N the Hood" Spotlighting the hard lives of young Black men in South Central Los Angeles, the film becomes a hit and a critical favorite - Bronx-based underground rapper Tim Dog releases the single 'Fuck Compton,' firing some of the first verbal shots in a simmering feud between East Coast and West Coast rappers -A video showing four L.A. police officers brutally beating a Black man named Rodney King is played at newstations all over the country. Several rappers contend that this has been happening for years in inner cities and call for change - Main Source releases their debut album
-1992 - 2pac Releases debut album -Eric B. & Rakim release their fourth album, "Don't Sweat the Technique." The album is critically acclaimed; but the duo split almost immediately after it's release. Eric B. continues to produce for other rappers, (with mixed results), while Rakim, arguably the most celebrated MC in rap up to this point; goes into seclusion. - Dr. Dre and Suge Knight form a partnership and create Death Row Records. Their first project is a song for the soundtrack to a police drama called "Deep Cover". The song features a young rapper from Long Beach named Snoop Doggy Dogg- -Dr. Dre’s debut The Chronic is released
-1993 - A Tribe Called Quest release their third album, Midnight Marauders, featuring a who-is-who-in-hip-hop album cover.. - Wu-Tang Clan release 36 Chambers. The line-up consists of Prince Rakeem (The RZA), Raekwon, Ol' Dirty Bastard, Method Man, Ghostface Killah, Genius (GZA), U-God, Master Killa and Inspectah Deck. - Mobb Deep (Prodigy and Havoc) release their debut LP, Juvenile Hell -KRS-One, deciding on a change of approach, officially 'retires' the name Boogie Down Productions; subsequently releasing albums only as KRS-One - Sean "Puffy" Combs begins running his own label, called Bad Boy Entertainment, out of his apartment. The company grows rapidly, and Combs soon signs two up-and-coming MCs, former EPMD roadie Craig Mack and a former drug dealer from Brooklyn named Christopher Wallace aka Notorious B.I.G - Snoop Dog releases his debut album - After six years and four critically-acclaimed albums, (and jump-starting the career of close friend Redman); EPMD, underground rap's most respected group--announce that they are going their seperate ways
-1994 - Nas’ first entry, Illmatic goes gold and is widely received as one of the greatest hip-hop albums ever - 2 Pac is robbed and shot 5 times in a New York recording studio. He recovers from the shooting. Pac is later sentenced to 8 months in prison - Common releases Resurrection and is lauded as an intelligent lyricist -"southernplayalisticadillacmuzik," the debut album from Atlanta-based rap duo Outkast signals a shift from hip-hop's bi-coastal grip. Loose and funky with clever lyrics and insightful subject-matter, the group becomes a cult favorite among hip-hop enthusiasts -Notorious B.I.G., after cameo appearances on several popular singles, finally releases "Ready to Die," his debut album for Bad Boy. It spawns two hit singles, 'Juicy' and 'Big Poppa;' one hit remix, 'One More Chance', and returns the East Coast to the top of the charts after a two-year absence. It also elevates Puffy Combs' Bad Boy label to the top of hip-hop.
-1995- 2 Pac signs a deal with Death Row Records after Suge Knight posts a $1.4 million bail. -Eric Wright (Eazy-E of N.W.A) dies of AIDS on March 20th at the age of 31.
-1996 - The Score, a fusion of conscious lyrics with reggae-tinged soulsonics, becomes The Fugees' biggest album. The album debuts at No.1 and grabs two Grammys, thus, breathing a new life into socially aware hip-hop - JAY Z drops his debut album "Reasonable doubt" - Sep 7th 2 pac in vegas is shot 5 days later dies and His death rekindled the debate on whether rap promotes violence or just reflects the ugly side of the streets - Will Smith stars in the action-sci fi flick "Independence Day", raising his profile as an A-list celebrity in Hollywood -Two debuts by two new female rappers, B.I.G. protege Lil Kim and ingenue Foxy Brown--albums that feature a heavy emphasis on sex and materialism--signal a change in direction for female MCs in hip-hop -Eminem, a White rapper from Detroit, releases his debut album, "Infinite," on a small indie label. Despite displaying a flair for clever, witty rhymes; the album goes unnoticed by fans and critics
- 1997 - The Notorious B.I.G. (born Christopher Wallace), is shot and killed March 9, after a party at the Petersen Automotive Museum in Los Angeles. Like Pac's murder, Biggie's death is still an unsolved mystery - Missy Misdemeanor Elliott redefines hip-hop and R & B with her first album, Supa Dupa Fly. Having broken barriers as a successful female producer, Missy would go on to become the highest selling female rapper of all time - After a year of critical acclaim, The Fugees announce that they are going their seperate ways; citing creative differences. Wyclef Jean almost immediately begins work on his solo debut -Ending a five-year period of seclusion that saw his reputation as a lyricist reach near-mythic proportions; Rakim finally makes his return with "The 18th Letter," his solo debut -Afeni Shakur, mother of the slain 2Pac Shakur; releases "R U Still Down (Remember Me)," a double-album of unreleased material the rapper recorded prior to his death. It is the beginning of a flood of songs, compilations and albums from the deceased rap star's vaults
-1998 - Lauryn Hill's solo debut, The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill, scores her 11 Grammy nominations and 5 wins, including Album of the Year and Best New Artist -DMX makes his debut with "It's Dark and Hell Is Hot" and intensely personal album of hardcore rap and poignant confessionals. It becomes a monster hit and signals a return of gritty, hardcore rap after a year of the more radio-friendly, Bad Boy-influenced party-rap -After releasing their fifth album, "The Love Movement," A Tribe Called Quest abruptly announce their breakup. Lead rapper Q-Tip immediately embarks on a solo career-After appearing on the song '4, 3, 2, 1' with LL Cool J; young up-and-comer Canibus releases '2nd Round K.O.,' a scathing dis of the legendary rapper. LL responds with 'The Ripper's Back.' returning some of the street credibility to his career after a string of MOR-pop hits -Big Punisher, a Puerto-Rican MC from the Bronx; releases his debut album, "Capital Punishment," and becomes the first Latino solo rapper to have a platinum-selling album - "DONDI" BORN "DONALD WHITE" 37 YEARS AGO, PASSED AWAY ON OCT.2 , DUE TO COMPLICATIONS RELATED TO PNEUMONIA.
- 1999 - EMINEM RELEASES HIS DEBUT THE SLIM SHADY LP changing EMCEEING FOREVER - Production duo The Neptunes (Chad Hugo & Pharrell Williams) dominate the airwave with a string of radio hits - Mos Def and Talib Kweli, collectively known as Black Star; release their eponymous debut. With their thoughtful, intelligent lyrics and laid-back approach, the album; along with Mos Def's solo debut, "Black On Both Sides;" ushers in a return of conscious alternative rap-Eve, a brash young female rapper from DMX's Ruff Ryders posse; releases her debut album "Let There Be Eve...Ruff Ryders First Lady - BIG L is shot and killed - SEPTEMBER. 10-12, ROCK AND ROLL HALL OF FAME HONORS HIP HOP LEGENDS WITH A HIP HOP MUSEUM AND CONFERENCE TITLED "Roots, Rhymes and Rage: The Hip Hop Story." FEATURING SUCH LEGENDS AS DJ KOOL HERC, DON CAMPBELLOCK (INVENTOR OF LOCKING), BOOGALOO SAM (INVENTOR OF POPING), AFRIKA BAMBAATA,KRS ONE, DST,GRAND MASTER FLASH, GRAND WIZARD THE ADORE, KEN SWIFT, THE ELECTRIC BOOGALOOS, HENRY CHALFAUNT, CHUCK D, AND MANY OTHERS
-2000 - DJ Craze wins the Technics DMC World DJ Championship 3 consecutive times - Big Pun dies of a heart attack at 29 years old -Shunning fame and the spotlight, acclaimed MC/singer/songwriter Lauryn Hill goes into self-imposed seclusion
- 2001 - JAY Z and NAS BATTLE ...After years of subliminal sniping, they finally take the gloves off and engage in a highly controversial lyrical face-off - also 9/11 "Terrorist Attack" happens ( do your research....) -Singer Aaliyah dies in a plane crash. She was only 22 years old. - MARE 139 DESIGNS THE LIFETIME ACHIEVMENT AWARD FOR BET'S MUSIC AWARDS. WHITNEY HOUSTON WILL BE THE FIRST ARTIST TO Receive THIS GRAFF INSPIRED SCULPTURE.His approach to the BET award was inspired by a new concept called "transitism" which deals with the intellectual interpretation of Wild Style art, movement, forms and light. "Elements of Transitism were utilized in the creation of BET's award", said Rodriguez. " I wanted the award to allude to excellence, understating a rise above diversity with the intersecting of star powers to represent will and force - FIRST ANNUAL "LORDS OF THE FLOOR" EVENT TOOK PLACE IN SEATTLE MAY 12, SPONSORED BY REDBULL 1ST PLACE: LA BREAKERS, 2ND PLACE: BOOGIE BRATS, 3RD PLACE, STYLE ELEMENTS ALSO AN UNEXPECTED GRUDGE MATCH BETWEEN KEN SWIFT AND KMEL IN THE AFTER PARTY. - "WHO CAN ROAST THE MOST" March 3RD and 4th 2001(Miami,Florida) For the 1st time ever battles are setup in Boxing match type themes using one bboy from Florida and one from somehwere else which were voted in online ABSTRAK VS. REMIND BEBE VS. VEITNAM LEGO VS`. JUSE BOOGIE EKSZOOBERANT VS. GHOST BETA VS. SOULSTICE CANDY VS. A-BGIRL these competitors went at it for a grueling 10 rounds and to add to the controversy no judges. (WHO CAN ROAST THE MOST? 5 OCTOBER 5TH AND 6TH 2001 K-MEL VS REVEAL CLOUD VS. MOY BOO ROK VS. LIL ROK TELLS 1 VS. IRON MONKEY FLIPZ VS. CHINO PRIZM VS. REINEN DEVEE VS. BIONIC MAN)
-2002- Jam Master Jay of RUN DMC is killed Oct. 30th - KRS ONE battles Nelly - EMINEM battles THE SOURCE magazine and BENZINO - FBI raids NYC Offices of MURDER INC record label connecting alleged financing to drug street team known as " The Supreme Team" and "Fat Cat" - and TLC's own Female Emcee Lisa "Left Eye" dies in a plane crash while seeking spiritual guidance on travels -The semi-revival of the Golden Age continues as DJ Jazzy Jeff releases his critically-acclaimed debut, "The Magnificent
-2003 - TBB one of the legendary founding Bboy crews is reformed and Aby and Batch the founder bring the crew back to light...today its going strong with chapters all across the globe and members young and old. -50 Cent's debut, "Get Rich or Die Tryin'," after months of hype; becomes one of the fastest-selling albums in history and establishes the hardcore rapper as one of the biggest stars of the year
-2004 - Wu Tang clan member Ol Dirty Bastard aka dirt McGirt dies in studio 2 days shy of 36th birthday - Kanye West releases his debut album
-2006- May 12th, 2006, Steven Nicholas AKA Skeeter Rabbit, began his journey in the afterlife. A true warrior and tremendous spirit, Skeet leaves behind a legacy and an afterglow that will illuminate the lives of many for years to come. His wonderful attributes have left a permanent presence and impact on those he loved and cared for
-2007- KRS-One and Marley Marl put two decades of rivalry behind them and collaborate on an album titled Hip-Hop Lives - One half of UGK Pimp C died in his hotel room on the 4th of December
- 2008 - Remy Ma - Bronx emcee marries Brooklyn Native underground Emcee Papoose and is sentenced to 8 years for allegedly shooting an associate over stolen monies. - KRS-One and DJ Revolution sign to Duck Down Records - Ruthless Records returns, with help from Sony. Eazy E's wife Tomica Woods-Wright is the CEO of the re-formed company -Bone Thugs-n-Harmony reunite after many years with the release of Flesh-n-Bone from jail and the return of turmoiled group member Bizzy Bone. They are recording a reunion album - Dr. Dre's daughter releases a controversial documentary called Daddy's Shadow talking about her dad not supporting her dreams of rapping - Dr. Dre's son, Andre Young, Jr., aged 20, was found dead on August 23, 2008 - 8 Mile actor, De'Angelo Wilson dies of suicide by hanging
- 2010 - Gang Starr co-founder and hip-hop icon Guru dies on April 19 after a grueling battle with cancer - TBB one of the original Bboy crews has its first Reunion marking a pivital point in Bboy history and igniting a new flame in the hearts of TBB/TBG to recruit and productively be active across the globe. - Nujabes died on February 26, aged 36, in a traffic accident - Nas and Damien Marley release collaborative album "Distant Relatives" -
-2011- Singer Nate Dogg dies on March 15, 2011 - Lil B names his new album I'm Gay, sparking controversy and death threats.- It is revealed that Missy Elliott is suffering from Graves' disease -A Tribe Called Quest's documentary film is released in the United States, amid a much-publicized disagreement over the film's vision between Q-Tip and director Michael Rapaport -Legendary rapper Heavy D dies at his home in Beverly Hills, California
-2012 - Lupe Fiasco and Pete Rock’s beef over the former remaking the latter’s beat from “T.R.O.Y.” for “Around My Way (Freedom Ain’t Free).” - Hip Hop executive Chris Lighty, founder of Violator and who managed and worked with artists like 50 Cent and Busta Rhymes, was found dead due to possible suicide -The Notorious B.I.G. Autopsy was leaked by the Los Angeles Police Department and published by TMZ. The Los Angeles Police Department apologized for the leaked to Voletta Wallace and Biggie's Family.
-2013 - up and coming West Coast Native Kendrick Lamar releases Control song where he states He is the King of NY and this line alone sparks Emcees on the mainstream and underground level to create a slew of diss tracks - most notable is Papoose - Control Response which solidifies Papoose as the current standing few lyrical Kings Of NY. - TBB Anniversary features 1st of many memorial murals for late bboy legend Trace 2 - Late famed Bronx Emcee Big Pun's son "Chris rivers" releases underground album "Wonderland of misery" sparking a flame and starting on his own path to greatness - NYC and world is watching - January 20, 2013, Lupe Fiasco was removed from the stage by security after making anti-Obama comments in Washington D.C., during Obama's second presidential inauguration - May 1, Chris Kelly of hip hop duo Kris Kross died at the age of 34 -
May 6, 90s hip hop group Naughty By Nature announced that they were splitting up- The Game following his official release from Interscope Records signed to Cash Money Records.
-2014 - Papoose - Brooklyn Native Emcee Releases his official studio commercial album "Nacirema Dream" , Papoose wife Remy Ma is released after 6 year sentence from prison and they showcase BET Emcee Cypher. - Late famed Bronx Emcee Big Pun's son "Chris rivers" performs at Rock Steady Crew Anniversary and releases 2nd album letting the HIP HOP community know the Bronx still has REAL EMCEES , - TBB marks its 39th Anniversary and Godfather Batch is welcomed back into society after 18 years of being incarcerated - Batch is the pres. of TBB FH 75 Division set in place to now reunite the Original members and give them a role in the new TBB of the 21st Century. - Universal Zulu Nation marks its 40th Anniversary and 39 years for HIP HOP as a cultural movement. - J. Cole Queens Native Emcee releases his album " Forest Hills Drive" and catches positive response and much more people become aware of him with a 1st ever performance of song "Be Free"on Letterman (The Late Show). - April 27, DJ E-Z Rock of duo Rob Base and DJ E-Z Rock passed away from unknown cases. The duo was best known for the single "It Takes Two" and its respective album. - May 28, the sale of Dr. Dre and Jimmy Iovine's Beats Electronics to Apple Inc. was finalized. The deal for 3 billion dollars, earned Dr. Dre hundreds of millions of dollars, making him the richest rapper in the game - June 10, Eminem became the first recording artist to receive two Digital Single Diamond Awards from the RIAA. They were for his singles "Not Afraid" and "Love The Way You Lie" singles, which both surpassed the 10 million threshold for a combination of sales and streams.
-2015 - Joey Badass - Brooklyn Native Emcee Releases Debut Commercial Album "B4Da$$" being a significant occurrence as the music is mainly Boom Bap style Instrumentals and Raw NY style Emceeing.- Outlawz Member Hussein Fatal Killed In Car Accident ,The Outlawz member (born Bruce Edward Washington) died from a
- 2016 -
- Phife Dawg of A Tribe called Quest died from diabetes at age of 45 on March 22nd - Tribe Called Quest released final group album "We Got It From Here, thank you 4 your service" - De La soul released album after 11 year hiatus "The Anonymous Nobody" and it is grammy nominated -Yasiin Bey formerly known as Mos Def announces retirement from music and movies following his Album release - Bboy Crazy Legs and Storm battle at the ages of both over 35 - it is an inspiring moment in Bboy history
The phrase hip hop is a combination of two separate slang terms—”hip”, used in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as early as 1898, meaning current or in the know ( a form of Intelligence), and “hop”, for the hopping movement. - SO HIP HOP IS INTELLIGENT MOVEMENT .....Keith “Cowboy” Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term hip hop in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army, by scat singing the words “hip/hop/hip/hop” in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers.[ Cowboy later worked the "HIP HOP" cadence into a part of his stage performance. The group frequently performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of MC/DJ-produced music by calling them "hip hoppers". The name was originally meant as a sign of disrespect, but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The opening of the song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, a 15-minute long song in addition to the verse on Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five's own "Superrappin'", were both released in 1979. Lovebug Starski, a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981, and DJ Hollywood then began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. HIP HOP pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa also credits Lovebug Starski as the first to use the term "HIP HOP", as it relates to the culture.
.......HIP HOP IS A CONCEPT , OUR CREATIVE INTELLECT , THE ENERGY WE HAVE FROM THE ANCESTORS THAT IS FOUND WITHIN NOT WITHOUT, THE ELEMENTS , THE COMMUNITY ,, etc..YOU ARE HIP HOP , I AM HIP HOP , WE AS HIP HOPPERS MAKE THIS ENERGY AND VISION A REALITY WHEN WE PRACTICE THE ELEMENTS OR USE THEM AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL OF SURVIVAL AND KNOWLEDGE OF SELF.
**WHEN WE SPEAK OF HIP HOP IN THE ABOVE TERMS WE WRITE IT IN ALL CAPITOL LETTERS BUT WHEN IT IS USED FOR PRODUCT PLACEMENT SUCH AS IN A T SHIRT OR A UNIT OF RECORD SALES FOR EMCEES OR RAPPERS YOU WILL NOTICE IT IS ALWAYS IN LOWER CASE LETTERS AND MAY HAVE A DASH --THIS IS A TOTAL DISREGARD FOR THE GREATNESS OF HIP HOP***
HIP HOP CAN BE BROKEN DOWN INTO THESE ANAGRAMS :
Her Infinite Power Helping Oppressed People ---as from the womb comes life -our energy and we place it on community grassroots inititives and sustainability , etc so this is a great anagam
Hydrogyn Iodine Phosphorus Hydrogyn Oxygen Phosphorus - this happens when you break down each letter to its elemental property- think of the elements also Bboyin/Locking or Cambellocking/ Popping OR DANCE IN GENERAL - Emceeing or rap - Writing or Graffiti -Deejaying or Turntablism - AND MOST CRUCIAL TO YOUR DEVELOPMENT AS A HIP HOPPER Knowledge as the information we document, retain and preserve becomes more confused in the age of misinformation going into the 22nd century and technology or tech having NO LOGIC....
Holy Integrated People Having Omnipresent Power.......
OTHER INTERESTING INFO TO TAKE NOTE OF *******
- The Original Tape Kings - were the first to do mixtapes back in the days
- PUMPKIN - HIP HOPS first real producer and "The Funky Drummer" responsible for many early production credits for a slew of early HIP HOP records on wax
-Jazzy Jay and Afrika Islam did the first Hip Hop radio show called Zulu Beats
-Egyptian Lover and Uncle Jamms Army were among the first to go out and have their own independent artist owned Hip Hop label on the west coast -USA - They were the west coast equivalent to DJ Kool Herc as they used to throw some legendary 'block' parties at local roller rinks, the LA Coliseum, The Sports Arena and Pasadena Civic Auditorium. In addition to all this they used to host concerts where they created a forum for all the upcoming artist of the day. Their reign went from the late 70s all the way into the mid 80s where they would be broadcasted live on Hip Hop's first commercial radio station KDAY 1580 am.
PEACE BE ON TO YOU - PLEASE QUESTION EVERYTHING EVEN THIS DOCUMENT AND RESEARCH IT EFFICIENTLY BY SPEAKING TO OLDER HIP HOPPERS , SPEAKING TO OR READING AND LISTENING TO INTERVIEWS WITH PIONEERS IN ALL THE ELEMENTS - SEEK YOUR LOCAL HIP HOP AMBASSADORS FOR SPIRITUAL AND EDUCATIONAL AND HISTORICAL GUIDANCE - READ BOOKS ON EVERYTHING - IT IS LITERALLY ALL CONNECTED....